Reading Framework

This reading framework has been created within Chinook’s Edge School Division for Pre-K to grade 12 teachers in all subject areas. This interactive framework is intended to provide a foundational understanding of reading skills, as well as provide a sampling of strategies that can be used to build those skills.

 

Division Literacy Measure

  Reading Instruction Vital Actions     

Foundational:

Outcomes:
Knowing your Expectations

Assessment:
Knowing your Students as Readers

Instruction
& Personalization

  • Know the reading outcomes of current grade (from the E.L.A. curriculum) - PPT Resource & Handout

  • Interpret all learning outcomes for all subjects through a “reading lens” - PPT Resource & Handout

  • Know the complexity of texts; complexity should be understood by students in current grade - PPT Resources (1, 2, 3) & Handout

  • Know the complexity of texts used in class (and how text complexity is determined) and where difficulties may occur - PPT Resources (123) & Handout
  • Reading strategies are integrated into instruction with content instruction, not in addition to it - PPT Resource

  • Combine knowledge of expectations and reading information about students when planning instruction - PPT Resource & Handout

  • Collaborate with other teachers of same students to choose 3-5 common strategies - PPT Resource

  • Chosen strategies cover many areas of reading skills - see framework PPT Resource

  • Explicitly explain and model reading strategies, then support student practice and reduce supports until strategies are independently used - General Method of Teaching Reading, PPT Resource

  • Continually monitor student progress through an assessment-instruction cycle - PPT Resource & Handout
 

Reading Instruction Vital Actions - Implementation Maps

  Key Outcomes: Knowing your Expectations

Vital Action Ideal Implementation In Process (2) In Process (1) No Implementation
Know the reading outcomes of current grade level (from E.L.A. curriculum)
- Know the expectations of reading for current grade
- Collaborates with ELA teacher to know what it looks like
- Know the expectations of reading for current grade
- Is aware that reading outcomes are in the ELA curriculum - but they don’t affect me
- Does not consider reading outcomes
Interpret content learning outcomes through a “reading lens”
- Integrate information about predicted stumbling blocks into planning
- Address reading stumbling blocks as separate from content - does not include them in planning
- Aware that reading stumbling blocks exist but struggles to identify them or include them in planning
- Does not consider reading when looking through outcomes
Know what level of complexity "should" be understood by students in current grade
- Able to explain what is included in current grade text complexity expectations as well as before and after grade levels
- Research and look for patterns in current grade text complexity expectations
- Texts are chosen based entirely on content
- Rely on programs to determine text complexities
- Does not consider text complexity expectations
Know the complexity of texts used in class (and how test complexity is determined) and where difficulties may occur
- Aware of complexity levels, difficult areas of text, and how to find texts of other complexity levels
- Aware of complexity levels of texts offered in the classroom
- Predict difficult language in textbooks and verbally explains those concepts
- Does not consider complexity levels
- Let class texts decide rigor of class - ie. just use the textbook

  Assessment: Knowing your Students as Readers

Vital Action Ideal Implementation In Process (2) In Process (1) No Implementation
Use reading screens and further assessments to learn about students
- All students are formally assessed to determine reading level
- Content assessments also provide screening information
- All students are screened, only struggling readers are formally assessed
- The tool confirms your thoughts
- Student difficulty in content knowledge is seen as separate from reading
- Somebody else provides reading information that is not used
- Learn how to screen and assess with an effective tool
- Does not see the need to screen or assess reading
- Does not know how, nor do they have the tool available, to screen or assess
Gather and organize data in a useful manner
- Reading data is gathered by the teachers who will use it in a simple, useful format
- Information is shared between staff
- Reading data is gathered by the teachers who will use it in a simple, useful format
- Reading data is gathered by one or a select few teachers
- Reading data is not gathered
Investigate the nature of reading problems for students who struggle
- Teacher uses effective  assessments to determine specific problem in reading early in the year
- Teacher uses effective  assessments to determine specific problem as the problem emerges
- Teacher has a general idea that students have difficulties with reading but does not attempt to determine specific areas
- Teacher is unaware of reading difficulty students have
Collaborate with school-based teams, including LST, to make meaning of the data
- Collaborate with school-based teams including LST to translate data into classroom practice
- Collaborate with school-based teams including LST to understand the data
- Need support to translate data into practice 
- Analyze data in isolation with limited translation into practice
- No collaboration with
LST or school-based teams
Design assessments using level of language students understand
- In order to separate knowledge of content outcomes from the student's ability to read, alternate assessment strategies are regularly implemented (change wording of the assessment to match the reading level, provide readers, oral assessments, etc.)
- In order to separate knowledge of content outcomes from the student's ability to read, alternate assessment strategies are occasionally implemented (change wording of the assessment to match the reading level, provide readers, oral assessments, etc.)
- In order to separate knowledge of content outcomes from the student's ability to read, alternate assessment strategies are only implemented for final exams or provincial assessments (change wording of the assessment to match the reading level, provide readers, oral assessments, etc.)
- Every student receives the same assessment
- Reading level is not separated from content knowledge

  Instruction & Personalization

Vital Action Ideal Implementation In Process (2) In Process (1) No Implementation
Know Critical Elements of Reading Instruction in any subject/level (Allington’s Big Six)
- Knows elements of Allington’s Big Six and coordinates plans with other teachers of same students
- Knows elements and incorporates them in their planning
- Aware of Allington’s Big Six elements but believes not all matter at the secondary level
- Unaware of Allington’s Big Six elements
Practices are research supported
- Only research-supported practices are consistently and naturally used in classrooms.
- Some research-supported practices are occasionally used in classrooms but are not yet part of routine.
- There is an awareness of research supported practices with limited classroom implementation.
- Classroom practices are not research-supported.  In fact, many practices in the classroom are detrimental to student's reading development.
Reading strategies support ALL students
- Consistent strategies are being used across the continuum of supports (tiers) and subject areas.
- Targeted strategies are not different than universal instructional practices - emphasis in specific areas and amount of time differ based on the student's individual needs.
- Within the classroom students receive strategy instruction based on their specific area of need.
- Grouping by specific area of need within the classroom with the classroom teacher.
- Common language and approach to reading instruction across grades.
- Consistent strategies are being used across the continuum of supports (tiers) and subject areas occasionally.
- Targeted and specialized strategies are somewhat similar to universal instructional practices - emphasis on more time.
- Students receive strategy instruction based on their specific area of need but not by the teacher or in the classroom.
- Grouping by specific area of need often outside the classroom and often with the EA.
- Common language and approach to reading instruction within a grade team.
- Targeted and specialized strategies look very different than universal practices (eg. isolated skill instruction).
- No consistency of strategies, language, or approaches across the grades.
- Students receive strategy instruction not based on area of need.
- A program is being run without connection to curriculum outcomes and student need.
- Grouping by reading level often outside the classroom and often with an EA.
 
- No supports beyond universal instruction.
- No reading strategy instruction.
Provide students with time and appropriate levelled texts
- Provides students with texts at appropriate instructional reading level and with significant amount of time to read
- Find and provide text on similar content at different complexity levels
- Provides students with appropriate level text and some time, but not enough
- Beyond the textbook, but not according to reading levels
- Trying to find texts of specific reading levels, but don't know where to look
- Lots of time and wrong texts, or right texts and little time
- Textbooks control complexity level, support put in place for content understanding but not reading improvement
- Unaware of student reading levels and amount of time needed and little time is devoted to reading
- Texts are above student comprehension levels with no thought of supports
Reading strategies are integrated into instruction across the curriculum, not in addition to it.
- Reading is taught using content.  Content is taught using reading
- Beginning to see self as a reading teacher
- Reading instruction is separated from content instruction
- See reading as important, but someone else's job
- Is not concerned with reading instruction
- Reading is never used to teach content
Combine knowledge of expectations and reading information about students when planning instruction
- Information of students from content assessments and reading assessments are used consistently when planning how to get students to level of expectation
- Information from reading assessment is considered when planning
- Understand content expectation and hope reading instruction gets students to that level
- Plan is to cover content
Collaborate with other teachers of same students to choose 3-5 common strategies
- All the teachers have a group of students who are focussing on the same strategies
- Reading strategies are being explicitly taught, but not being coordinated amongst teachers
- Learning about reading strategies but not yet explicitly teaching them
- No explicit reading strategies being taught
Chosen strategies cover many areas of reading skills - see Reading Framework
- Teachers are using a balance of strategies from the Reading Framework (i.e. a strategy from background knowledge or vocabulary)
- Teachers choose a strategy based on the need of students, not on a "shiny fish hook" program or PD session.
- Teachers are aware of the reading strategies in the Reading Framework (or other research supported resources)
- Teachers are not using any of the reading strategies and are not using the Reading Framework
Explicitly explain and model reading strategy, then support student practice and reduce supports until strategy is independently used
- Explain strategy clearly and model many times with different texts.
- Students practice with texts that are a good fit for both the student and the strategy with teacher feedback and monitoring (can happen in small groups).
- Explain strategy clearly with limited modelling and limited guided practice.
- Explain strategy clearly and not modelled.
- Students do not practice with good fit, authentic texts (worksheets, etc.).
- Reading strategies are not explained or modelled.
- It is assumed that students already know the reading strategies (eg. summarize this paragraph...)
 
Continually monitor student progress through an assessment-instruction cycle
- Frequent monitoring of student reading abilities and progress. 
- Instruction and supports are adjusted accordingly.
- Student reading levels are assessed at reporting periods and there is some evidence that this information is used to inform instruction.
- Student reading levels are assessed in September and June.  Information is not used to inform instruction.
- Student reading levels are not known.